South Australians are staring down the barrel of a second wave of COVID-19 cases after a hotel quarantine breach led to the state’s most concerning cluster since the pandemic began.

On Sunday, the state recorded just three new cases.

So how did this happen? And how does Adelaide prevent itself from becoming the new Melbourne?

How did it happen?

The infections have all stemmed from a back-of-house worker looking after repatriated overseas citizens in one of the city’s medi-hotels.

“We have tested the two people who were security guards from a medi-hotel and the one person who works in the medi-hotel in back of house,” Spurrier said.

One of those workers then infected 15 family members and two other hotel security guards.

Peppers Hotel on Waymouth Street is one of the CBD's quarantine facilities.
Peppers Hotel on Waymouth Street is one of the CBD's quarantine facilities. Credit: 7NEWS

From there, the virus exploded.

One of the family members, a woman in her 80s, attended the Lyell McEwin emergency department while infectious.

As a result, 13 nurses have been forced to self-isolate.

Another of the positive cases is a Year 8 student at Thomas More College, in Salisbury Downs, who attended school while infectious.

More than 1,000 students and staff members at the school are now being urged to monitor closely for COVID-19 symptoms.

Thomas More College, at Salisbury Downs, has been shut down for deep cleaning.
Thomas More College, at Salisbury Downs, has been shut down for deep cleaning. Credit: 7NEWS

Mawson Lakes School and Preschool have also been closed after students were deemed close contacts of positive infections.

A number of northern suburbs bus routes, an Adelaide CBD hotel and Elizabeth Shopping Centre have also been identified as high-risk locations.

See the full list of exposure sites here.

Hungry Jack’s in Port Adelaide has also been shut down after a worker tested positive, while Yatala Labor Prison has been forced into lockdown due to an infected employee.

AnglicareSA’s Bowden facility has been closed to visitors after not one, but two staff members tested positive.

A number of bus routes, shopping centres and an Adelaide CBD hotel are among sites potentially exposed to South Australia’s latest COVID-19 cluster.
A number of bus routes, shopping centres and an Adelaide CBD hotel are among sites potentially exposed to South Australia’s latest COVID-19 cluster. Credit: 7NEWS

And 96 SA Police officers are now in isolation.

Within 24 hours, South Australia was effectively shut out of half the country with WA, Tasmania, the NT and QLD slamming their borders shut.

Victoria has imposed tougher restrictions for travellers arriving from South Australia while NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian says authorities are monitoring the situation closely.

How did this happen?

Questions have been raised as to whether a bungle in Adelaide’s medi-hotel system is to blame for the potentially-devastating outbreak

South Australia was welcoming up to 600 returned travellers per week before international arrivals were shut off on Monday.

Last week, there were 19 active cases inside the city’s hotel quarantine facilities - more than a quarter of the country’s total.

So did Adelaide bite off more than it could chew when it came to hosting repatriated citizens? Not at all, the premier says.

A Thank You sign can be seen as guests leave quarantine at the Pullman Hotel in Adelaide.
A Thank You sign can be seen as guests leave quarantine at the Pullman Hotel in Adelaide. Credit: KELLY BARNES/AAPIMAGE

“Our hotel quarantine arrangement was absolutely gold standard, but this is a highly contiguous disease,” Marshall says.

“Even with all of those precautions we have had someone who has tested positive and passed it on to those workers.

“We can really see just how infectious this disease is.”

The health chief has conceded that complacency has also played a role in the staggeringly-fast spread of the outbreak.

“This is a wake-up call that COVID-19 has not gone away,” Spurrier said.

What happens now?

Spurrier says while it’s not there yet, South Australia is now staring down the barrel of a second wave.

“We are in very, very early days,” she said.

“We need to do testing, contact tracing and getting people into quarantine very, very quickly.

“Everybody has a responsibility - it is a mutual responsibility - to continue to maintain excellent hand hygiene, cover coughs and sneezes and stay 1.5m from each other.”

Professor Nicola Spurrier says she believes more cases will stem from the cluster.
Professor Nicola Spurrier says she believes more cases will stem from the cluster. Credit: AAP

In response to the cluster, a swathe of new restrictions were announced on Monday in a bid to stem the virus’ spread.

Pubs, restaurants, gyms, funerals and private gatherings will all be heavily restricted from 11.59pm.

See the full list of new restrictions here.

But Spurrier says there’s hope that we will be able to bring the outbreak under control.

Testing queues at COVID-19 clinics across Adelaide were flooded as South Australians flocked to do the right thing.

As of 6pm Monday, there were no new infections from the Parafield cluster despite thousands of test results being returned.

Hundreds of people are already queueing at Parafield as authorities desperately try to clamp down on a new coronavirus cluster.
Hundreds of people are already queueing at Parafield as authorities desperately try to clamp down on a new coronavirus cluster. Credit: 7NEWS

The premier says, if South Australians play their part, we may yet escape the fate of our eastern counterpart.

“It’s fair to say that we are now facing our biggest test to date,” Marshall said.

“I want to assure all South Australians that we are working around-the-clock to get this cluster under control.

“We are on the brink of a second wave, but by acting decisively we are going to stave off this terrible situation.”

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